<h3>1901-1946</h3>
<h4>A History of Indiana University's Deans of Women</h4>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1833</h3>
<h4>Women Enter Higher Education</h4>
<p>Oberlin College opened in Oberlin, Ohio. From its beginning, the college admitted both men and women, making it the first coeducational institution of higher education in the United States. However, women were not admitted to baccalaureate programs until 1837 (27).</p>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1860s</h3>
<h4>Women in Higher Education in the Mid-19th Century</h4>
<p>Higher education in the United States remained largely inaccessible to women until after the Civil War, despite the development of women’s colleges and a few scattered coeducational institutions (22).</p>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1867</h3>
<h4>IU Becomes Coeducational</h4>
<p>Indiana University became coeducational in 1867 with the admission of Sarah Parke Morrison (8). In addition to being the first female student, Morrison was an important figure in the development of the Dean of Women position at Indiana University. Between 1873 and 1875, Morrison served as the Social Advisor, a position that oversaw the daily life of women students. This role was a predecessor to the Dean of Women (22).</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910172414" />/“alt=“photo of Sarah Parke Morrison”&gt;
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0027561</p>
<h3>1870-1890</h3>
<h4>Women in Higher Education in the late 19th Century</h4>
<p>When IU became coeducational, there were only around 11,000 women enrolled in higher education in the United States. Enrollment boomed for women in the next several decades. By 1880, at least a third of college students in the United States were women. By 1890, there were roughly 56,000 women enrolled in college and by 1920, there were 283,000. (26).</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750014407" />/“alt=“photo of First Women Students of Indiana University, 1868”&gt;
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0031275</p>
<h3>1890s</h3>
<h4>Administrative Concerns About Women</h4>
<p>Female enrollment continued to grow at IU in the 1890s. Campus administrators and faculty, believing that female students required guidance, became concerned with the supervision of female students (22).</p>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1892</h3>
<h4>First Dean of Women</h4>
<p>In 1892, the University of Chicago became the first institution to appoint a Dean of Women with the hiring of Alice Freeman Palmer, one of the earliest women graduates of the University of Michigan. Before her time at Chicago, she had served as the president of Wellesley College. Palmer’s colleague, Marion Talbot, succeeded her in the deanship in 1895 and became one of the most influential early Deans of Women (8).</p>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1898</h3>
<h4>IU Considers Hiring a Dean of Women</h4>
<p>By the 1898-1899 academic year, over 300 women were enrolled at Indiana University, which was roughly 30% of the student body (8). With the number of female students quickly increasing, the Board of Trustees began conversations about hiring a Dean of Women in 1898. The following year, the Board directed President Joseph Swain to find an acceptable candidate (9). However, finding a qualified woman willing to accept the position proved difficult. Eventually Swain recommended Dr. Mary Bidwell Breed and she assumed the position in 1901 (7).</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910170924" />/“alt=“ The Old Crescent, 1898”&gt;
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0035211</p>
<h3>1901</h3>
<h4>Dr. Mary Bidwell Breed Becomes IU's First Dean of Women</h4>
<p>Dr. Mary Bidwell Breed was an impressive academician. She held three degrees in chemistry from Bryn Mawr College and completed a chemistry fellowship in Heidelburg, Germany. She came to IU to serve as Dean of Women and teach chemistry shortly after finishing her Ph.D. (7). Full-time faculty positions were incredibly scarce for women, especially in the sciences, and women often had to accept half administration/half faculty appointments (24).</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750015187" />/“alt=“photo of Mary Bidwell Breed”&gt;
<p>IU Photograph Collection P0020716</p>
<h3>1901-1906</h3>
<h4>Early Job Duties</h4>
<p>During her time at IU, Dr. Breed’s efforts focused on securing safe and hygienic off-campus housing for women. In the early 1900s, college students usually lived off campus in private homes, but conditions varied widely at these facilities. She spent several years advocating for an on-campus dormitory for women without success. Construction on a private dormitory-style boarding house, Alpha House, began in 1904. The facility opened in 1906 but did not fully meet the needs of the campus (1).).</p>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1903</h3>
<h4>First Professional Conferences</h4>
<p>University of Chicago Dean of Women Marion Talbot created the first Deans of Women conference. Breed attended the conference on behalf of Indiana University, along with representatives fifteen other institutions. Several members of the future Big 10 conference (Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Ohio State, Michigan, and Northwestern) attended (25). Such conferences became an annual event for deans of women, with IU sending representatives to early conferences (4).</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750015517" />/“alt=“Resolutions from the 4th Conference of the Dean of Women and Advisors in State Universities”&gt;
<p>IU Archives Dean of Women Office Records C165, Box 1</p>
<h3>1906</h3>
<h4>Job Duties</h4>
<p>In a 1906 report, Dr. Breed defined her work in three parts: academic matters, material well being, and social affairs. In her position, she essentially served as the academic and career advisor, social director, admissions counselor, disciplinarian, and chaperone to women students. She also dealt with a general lack of respect for her position on campus (22). Faculty did not accept the concept of a female dean, and female students saw her as an unwanted chaperone.</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750014037/“alt=“1906" report="" to="" the="" board="" of="" trustees="" />
<p>Indiana University Archives Dean of Women Office Records C165, Box 1</p>
<h3>1903</h3>
<h3>1906</h3>
<h4>Bidwell Breed Resigns</h4>
<p>Dr. Breed submitted her letter of recommendation to accept a position at the University of Missouri in 1906 (10). She had been incredibly frustrated in her role, especially at IU’s lack of progress on housing for women.</p>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1906</h3>
<h4>Louise Goodbody Becomes Acting Dean of Women</h4>
<p>President William Lowe Bryan appointed Louise Goodbody as the Acting Dean of Students in late 1906 (11). The Board of Trustees made her appointment permanent in 1908 (12).</p>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1906-1911</h3>
<h4>Louise Goodbody</h4>
<p>Louise Goodbody was the only Indiana alumna to serve as Dean of Women. Originally from New York, she moved to Stanford University to serve as a nanny for the family of David Starr Jordan, who had been president of Indiana University before he assumed the presidency at Stanford. While Goodbody was working at Stanford, she met Joseph Swain, who later became president of Indiana University. When Swain moved to Bloomington, he offered her a position as secretary in the Office of the President. She accepted and completed her bachelor’s degree at IU in 1894. When President Bryan appointed her Acting Dean of Women, she was working as a secretary in his office (7).</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910171174/“alt=“Louise" goodbody="" />
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0048180</p>
<h3>1910</h3>
<h4>Job Duties</h4>
<p>Like Breed, Goodbody’s job duties focused on housing, discipline, and the supervision of students in social activities and sorority life. She also continued to advise students and organizations. In 1910, Goodbody described her duties as “administrative largely,” noting that her work involved supervision in a variety of areas, social entertainment of students, and consulting with students (20).</p>
<img src="blank" />
<h3>1911</h3>
<h4>Dean Goodbody Dies</h4>
<p>Louise Goodbody died unexpectedly from pancreatitis. A memorial scholarship was established in her name and Goodbody Hall was eventually named for her (13).</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910171684/“alt=“Goodbody" hall="" 1954="" />
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0028549</p>
<h3>1911</h3>
<h4>Carrie DeNise Becomes Dean of Women</h4>
<p>Carrie Louise DeNise, a graduate of what is now Grinnel College, became Dean of Students in 1911. DeNise was the only one of the IU Deans to have previous experience as a Dean of Women before accepting the role as she had served in a similar position at her undergraduate college for five years before coming to IU (7).</p>
<img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750013867/”alt=“Carrie" denise="" />
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0049710</p>
<h3>1911</h3>
<h4>DeNise as Dean of Women</h4>
<p>Although the position was more than a decade old when Carrie DeNise took office, the Dean of Women role still had not gained respect on campus from faculty or students. Goodbody had been loved by students, but women students still did not appreciate being supervised. DeNise’s job was difficult. In 1911, the campus still lacked a residence hall system and the job duties of the dean were increasingly demanding (6; 7). DeNise resigned after less than three years in the role (14). <img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1914</h3>
<h4>Dr. Ruby Mason Appointed Dean of Women</h4>
<p>Dr. Ruby Mason was appointed Dean of Women (14). Originally from Ontario, Mason held a bachelor's and master’s degree from the University of Toronto and a degree in education from the Ontario College of Pedagogy. After her time at IU, she completed her doctoral degree at the University of Oxford. She held a dual appointment at Indiana, also teaching English (7).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910172544/”alt=“Ruby" mason="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0026304</p>
<h3>1914-1918</h3>
<h4>Dr. Ruby Mason</h4>
<p>Originally from Ontario, Mason held a bachelor's and master’s degree from the University of Toronto and a degree in education from the Ontario College of Pedagogy. After her time at IU, she completed her doctoral degree at the University of Oxford. She held a duel appointment at Indiana, also teaching English (7).</p>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1917</h3>
<h4>The United States Enters World War I</h4>
<p>blank</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910172254/”alt=“Bryan" speaking="" to="" men="" standing="" in="" a="" field="" /></p>
<p>William Lowe Bryan speaking to WWI recruits during induction ceremony</p>
<h3>1917-1918</h3>
<h4>IU During World War I</h4>
<p>Dr. Mason served as the Dean of Women during the United States’ involvement in World War I, and her work as Dean of Women reflected war-time needs of the campus. Her job duties continued to encompass the advisory and supervisory roles of her predecessors, but they also expanded to include tasks such as organizing care packages for soldiers and supervising gardens on campus. She also helped establish early Red Cross nurses training for students. She left IU in 1918 to accept a Dean of Women position at the University of Illinois (20).</p>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1917</h3>
<h4>NADW Formed</h4>
<p>The National Association of Deans of Women (NADW) is formed by Kathryn Sisson McLean in New York City (24, 7). Though not the first professional organization for deans of women, this organization became the main professional organization for the role.</p>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1918</h3>
<h4>Dr. Agnes Wells Appointed Dean of Women</h4>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910170714/”alt=“Agnes" wells="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0068342</p>
<h3>1918-1937</h3>
<h4>Job Duties</h4>
<p>Dr. Wells was the longest-serving IU Dean of Women. She held a dual appointment and also taught in the astronomy department. She stayed in the role for twenty years until her retirement in 1937. In 1924 she finished her doctorate work at the University of Michigan while working at IU.</p>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1918-1937</h3>
<h4>Job Duties</h4>
<p>As Dean of Women, Dr. Wells oversaw the opening of Memorial Hall, the first residence hall on campus for women, and developed IU’s earliest residential life programs (8). Additionally, she navigated the Dean of Women role through all of Prohibition and most of the Great Depression. Financial aid became a key component of her work during the Depression years. The Dean of Women Office sought to find various funding sources for students and oversaw several loans and scholarships for women students (22). Agnes Wells Quadrangle which includes Goodbody and Memorial Hall was named in her honor.</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910170744/”alt=“Six" women="" residents="" of="" memorial="" hall="" east="" 1936="" or="" 1937="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0042717</p>
<h3>1918-1920</h3>
<h4>The Spanish Influenza Hits the United States</h4>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1919</h3>
<h4>Prohibition begins</h4>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1919</h3>
<h4>First Dean of Men</h4>
<p>Dr. C. E. Edmondson was appointed IU’s first Dean of Men (16). By the late 1920s, Deans of Men had become a trend in higher education, especially in institutions in the Midwest (24).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750013647/”alt=“Dr." clarence="" edmondson="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0036620</p>
<h3>1920</h3>
<h4>The Nineteenth Amendment is passed. Women are granted the right to vote.</h4>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1921</h3>
<h4>Memorial Fund Campaign Began</h4>
<p>This campaign funded the construction of Memorial Hall, the first women’s residence hall at IU (8).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750012967/”alt=”Memorial" fund="" campaign--speakers="" for="" memorial="" convocation="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0045006</p>
<h3>1924</h3>
<h4>Dean of Women Office Expands</h4>
<p>The Office of the Dean of Women expanded to include an Assistant Dean of Students for the first time with the appointment of Grace Young Philput in 1924, who was also a professor in the Romance Languages department (5).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910172384/”" alt="”Grace" young="" philputt="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0030376</p>
<h3>1925</h3>
<h4>Memorial Hall Opens</h4>
<p>The residence hall, however, was only open to white women. Women of color continued to live off-campus until the residence halls for women were integrated in 1949 (8).</p>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1929</h3>
<h4>The Great Depression Begins</h4>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1918-1937</h3>
<h4>Job Duties</h4>
<p>During Wells’ time at Indiana, the role of the Dean of Women and student personnel staff began to professionalize, with job roles becoming more formalized. National organizations strengthened and the developing field of student personnel/student affairs began to incorporate elements of personnel work and psychology (21; 24).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910172154/”alt=”Agnes" wells="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0069347</p>
<h3>1933</h3>
<h4>Prohibition Ends</h4>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1937</h3>
<h4>Dr. Agnes Wells Retires</h4>
<p>Dr. Agnes Wells announced her retirement from the Dean of Women position in 1937. She continued to teach at IU after her retirement (17).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750014897/”alt=”Reception" for="" dr="" agnes="" wells="" 1944="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0041580</p>
<h3>1938</h3>
<h4>Dr. Kate Hevner Mueller Appointed Dean of Women</h4>
<p>Dr. Kate Hevner Mueller was named IU’s sixth and final Dean of Women (28).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910171534/”alt=”" kate="" hevner="" mueller="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0031007</p>
<h3>1938-1946</h3>
<h4>Dr. Kate Hevner Mueller</h4>
<p>Dr. Mueller was a psychologist by training. She held a bachelor's degree in English from Wilson College, a master’s degree in psychology from Columbia University, and a doctoral degree in psychology from the University of Chicago. Dr. Mueller held a faculty position at the University of Minnesota, but resigned from when her husband, John, accepted a position in the sociology department at IU. Three years after moving to Bloomington, President Herman B Wells offered her the Dean of Women position. She remained in the position until 1946 when the Dean of Men and Dean of Women Offices were consolidated and she was demoted to counselor of women (2).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750017167/”alt=”Kate" hevner="" mueller="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0040921</p>
<h3>1941</h3>
<h4>The United States Enters WWII</h4>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/38910172274/”alt=”Army" students="" at="" memorial="" hall="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives Photograph Collection P0039437</p>
<h3>1941-1945</h3>
<h4>Job Duties</h4>
<p>Much of Dr. Mueller’s time at Indiana was spent addressing needs on campus created by World War II. IU served as a training facility for the United States military. Troops in training used the residence hall for housing, displacing the women who had lived there. Dr. Mueller and her staff worked to find places for women around Bloomington, with many spending the duration of the war in repurposed fraternity houses or boarding houses in town (18).</p>
<p><img src="https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/24750015867/”" alt="”Academic" bulletin="" except="" from="" 1945="" career="" guide="" for="" women="" /></p>
<p>IU Archives 1945-1946</p>
<h3>1945</h3>
<h4>Job Duties</h4>
<p>In addition to expanding residential programs, Dr. Mueller and her staff emphasized counseling and guidance work. National concepts about gender impacted their work and how they framed the role. A 64-page, 1945 Career Guide pamphlet distributed by the office described the four roles of women as “earner, homemaker, citizen, and individual” (3).</p>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1945</h3>
<h4>WWII Ends</h4>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1946</h3>
<h4>Dean of Women Office Disbanded</h4>
<p>IU consolidated the Offices of the Dean of Women and Dean of Men in 1946. Dr. Mueller was demoted to senior counselor of women (2). IU’s decision followed national trends of consolidation after World War II. Thousands of men returned to college following the war and the GI Bill greatly increased campus populations of men (24). For the first time since the late 19th century, female enrollment slowed as societal gender expectations became more rigid, pushing women out of power in academia (25).</p>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>1946-Current</h3>
<h4>Impact of the Dean of Women</h4>
<p>Though the Dean of Women Office ceased to exist after 1946, its impact did not disappear from campus. The Office developed the concept of student services and student affairs at IU. During its 45-year existence, these services were solidified in the institutional framework. Dr. Mueller went on to accept a faculty appointment at IU, eventually working to establish the Higher Education and Student Affairs program, one of the earliest graduate training programs for college student personnel staff (2).</p>
<p><img src="blank" /></p>
<h3>2017</h3>
<h4>References</h4>
<p>1) Brochure on Alpha House. Indiana University Archives, Collection 165, Folder 2. Bloomington, Indiana. 2) Coomes, M.D., Whitt, E. J., &amp; Kuh, G. D. (1987). Kate Hevner Mueller: Woman for a changing world. Journal for Counseling and Development, vol. 65, no. 8. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1987.tb00743.x 3) Career Guide for Women. Indiana University Archives, 1945 Class Bulletin. Bloomington, Indiana IU Archives, 45-46 Bulletin 8.JPG 4) Deans of Women Conference Materials. Indiana University Archives, Collection 165, Box 1, Folder Deans Meetings. Bloomington, Indiana. 5) Dean of Women Office Report 1923-1924. Indiana University Archives, Collection 165, Online. Bloomington, Indiana. 6) Dedication of Yearbook to Louise Goodbody. Indiana University Arbutus Yearbook,1912. Indiana University Archives. Bloomington, Indiana. 7) Gerda, J. J. (2004). A history of the conference of deans of women, 1902-1922 (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. 8) Indiana University. (2017). IU chronology. Retrieved from https://libraries.indiana.edu/iu-chronology#1850.</p>
<h3>2017</h3>
<h4>References</h4>
<p>9) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, 1898-1899. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 10) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, July 1906. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 11) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, November 1906. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 12) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, July 1908. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 13) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, 1911. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 14) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, 1914. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 15) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, 1918. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 16) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, 1919. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D.</p>
<h3>2017</h3>
<h4>References</h4>
<p>17) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, 1937. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 18) Indiana University Board of Trustees Minutes, 1987. Indiana University Archives. Retrieved from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/iubot/welcome.do;jsessionid=C7389F475FEF20B9427893992F61BE4D. 19) Letter from Louise Goodbody describing the role of the Dean of Women. Indiana University Archives, Collection 165, Box 1, Folder FH. Bloomington, Indiana. 20) Letter from R. Mason to A. Wells. Indiana University Archives, Collection 165, Box 4, Folder War June 1918. Bloomington, Indiana. 21) Nidiffer, J. (2000). Pioneering deans of women: More than wise and pious matrons. New York City, NY: Teachers College Press. 22) Request for Employment. Indiana University Archives, Collection 165, Box 1, Folder 3. Bloomington, Indiana. 23) Rossiter, M. W. (1982). Women scientists in America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 24) Schwartz, R. A. (1997). How Deans of Women Became Men. The Review of Higher Education, vol. 20 no. 4. doi:10.1353/rhe.1997.0011 25) Solomon, B. M. (1985). In the company of educated women. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 26) Timeline of Oberlin College. (2017). Oberlin College. Retrieved from http://www2.oberlin.edu/175/timeline.html.</p>