<h2>Indiana University Graduate School (1894-1960)</h2>


<p>With a history spanning over 100 years, the Indiana University Graduate School is responsible for overseeing research-focused graduate degrees and graduate education on all of IU’s campuses. Learn more about the first half of its history.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University</p>


<h4>Alan B. Philputt</h4>

<p>The first graduate degree at Indiana University was awarded eight years before the creation of the graduate school to Alan B. Philputt. Philputt received an A.B. from IU in 1880 and an A.M. in 1886. Philputt went on to teach Latin and Greek at IU for several years before becoming a minister and moving to Philadelphia and later to Indianapolis. While IU granted several graduate degrees before Philputt's, these were not earned as a result of additional graduate work, but rather as an addendum to undergraduate studies. This makes Philputt the first to earn a graduate degree as a result of actual graduate work at the university.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0031144</p>

<p>Rev. Alan Philputt on Easter Sunday at a Philadelphia church (Taken between 1890 and1898)<p>


<h4>Administrative Beginnings</h4>

<p>The "Committee on Advanced Degrees" is established to oversee the growing number of students pursuing graduate degrees at IU. In addition to approving graduate degrees, the committee also makes decisions on graduate coursework.</p>

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<p>Photograph taken by Hayden S. Sims</p>

<p>The Official Minutes Book of the Committee on Advanced Degrees, Indiana University Archives, C278, Box 1.</p>

<h3>January 16, 1902</h3>

<h4>"In order to give dignity and coherence..."</h4>

<p>Report from the Committee on Advanced Degrees: “In order to give dignity and coherence to the graduate work it is recommended that a graduate school be established, controlled by an administrative board of which the Vice President of the University shall be ex officio chairman, the remaining members of the board to consist of seven heads of departments, selected by the President in the following proportion: Two from Greek, Latin, Romance Languages, Germanic Languages, English; two from History, Economics, Philosophy, Pedagogy, Law; one from Mathematics, Mechanics, Physics; two from Chemistry, Geology, Zoology, Botany, Psychology.”</p>


<h4>The Indiana University Graduate School</h4>

<p>The Indiana University Graduate School is formally established after faculty approval. The new school is governed by the Committee on Advanced Degrees which changes its name to the Administrative Committee of the Graduate School. It would later change its name to the Graduate Council in 1909.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University</p>


<h4>Preston Eagleson</h4>

<p>Along with being the first African-American member of an IU athletic team, Preston Eagleson was also the first African-American to receive a graduate degree (A.M. in Philosophy) from Indiana University in 1906.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0056920</p>


<h4>Office of the Dean of the Graduate School Created</h4>

<p>The Office of the Dean of the Graduate School is established and Carl H. Eigenmann is appointed its first holder.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0020959</p>


<h4>Carl H. Eigenmann</h4>

<p>Education:<br>Indiana University (B.S. 1886, A.M. 1887, Ph.D. 1889)</p><p>Professor of zoology and first Dean of the Graduate School, Carl H. Eigenmann first came to Indiana as a German immigrant 1877 at the age of 14. He was a world-renowned ichthyologist, known best for his work on South American fish and blind fish. At the same time that he was dean, Eigenmann also served as Curator of Fishes at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh, PA. He served this role from his office in Bloomington for almost a decade, travelling to Pittsburgh during university breaks and vacations. The Carl H. Eigenmann Residence, built in 1966, bears his name.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of University of California San Diego Special Collections & Archives</p>


<h4>Effa Funk Muhse</h4>

<p>Effa Funk Muhse was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. from Indiana University and received a Ph.D. in zoology in 1908.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0021529</p>


<h4>Fernandus Payne</h4>

<p>Education:<br>Valparaiso University (B.S. 1901)<br>Indiana University (B.A. 1905, M.A. 1906)<br>Columbia University (Ph.D. 1909)</p><p>Fernandus Payne was the second man appointed Dean of the Graduate School. A student of Carl Eigenmann, Payne too was a professor of zoology and even chair of his department. Unsatisfied with how the IU Graduate School compared to other universities in the Midwest, Payne sought to completely restructure graduate work at IU. He was especially successful in attracting top researchers to IU, including two Nobel Prize winners: Hermann Muller (Physiology or Medicine, 1946) and Salvador Luria (Physiology or Medicine, 1969).</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0050138</p>


<h4>The Graduate Council is Dissolved</h4>

<p>Deemed no longer necessary, the Graduate Council is disbanded.</p>


<h4>Before and After World War II: A Period of Growth</h4>

<p>With the end of the Depression, the onset of World War II, and the appointment of Herman B Wells as university president, Fernandus Payne knew that the opportunity to expand the Graduate School into a first-class institution which would be comparable to other Midwestern institutions had finally arrived. Over the next several years Wells, Payne, and others worked to increase funding for scholarships and fellowships so that graduate studies were not limited to those who could pay their own way; they worked to expand research and laboratory space on campus; and they infused IU with a new generation of young, bright scholars tasked not only with teaching, but also with doing substantial research.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0036395</p>


<h4>The Nobel Prize Comes to Bloomington: Hermann J. Muller</h4>

<p>Hermann Joseph Muller won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1946 “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of x-ray radiation.” While the research that led to Muller’s discovery was done elsewhere, his time at IU was spent training graduate students in his lab.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0046802</p>

<p>Dean Payne and President Wells admire Hermann Muller's Nobel Prize Medal</p>


<h4>Stith Thompson</h4>

<p>Education:<br>University of Wisconsin (B.A. 1909) <br>University of California, Berkeley (M.A. 1912) <br>Harvard University (Ph.D. 1914) </p><p>By his own admissions, Stith Thompson’s three years as dean were unremarkable compared to the tenure of other deans. He did, however, manage to help establish Indiana University Press and introduced the Master of Arts for Teachers (M.A.T.) degree. But Thompson’s main legacy at IU was the Folklore Institute, which he created in 1942.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0021913</p>


<h4>Lindley Hall</h4>

<p>Being the first Dean of the Graduate School to not make his name by studying fish, Dean Thompson moved the graduate offices from the Department of Zoology to Lindley Hall.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0076058</p>


<h4>Ralph E. Cleland</h4>

<p>Education:<br>University of Pennsylvania (B.A. 1915, Ph.D. 1919)</p><p>Professor and chairman of the botany department, Ralph E. Cleland was a successful researcher and a respected teacher. When asked to become the next Dean of the Graduate School, he accepted on the condition that he be allowed time to continue doing his research. Also, he continued to teach well beyond his retirement at the age of 70 because of the popularity and demand for both his classes. Dean Cleland was a member and leader of numerous committees, boards, and associations, including serving as editor of the American Journal of Botany and as a member of the National Commission for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0028185</p>


<h4>The Graduate Council Returns</h4>

<p>After being disbanded in 1934, the Graduate Council is reestablished. Unlike its predecessor, the new Graduate Council did not provide for “systematic representation” of the various academic fields, deeming “general representation…more important that representation by fields."</p>


<h4>Proposal for the Coordination of Graduate Programs at Indiana University</h4>

<p>Despite the existence of the Graduate School, graduate work at IU was largely decentralized, with departments and schools possessing a much greater level of autonomy than most of their contemporaries at other institutions across the country. In 1953, a long debate began about coordinating graduate work into a more centralized unit where all graduate work would be under a single dean and a single council. Many proposals were written about how this centralized structure would work; however the debate went on for over seven years until President Wells appointed John W. Ashton as Vice President and Dean of the Graduate School. In addition Ashton was granted administrative control over several graduate school organizations, including numerous research centers and institutes, the university press, and the solicitation of research grants. On April 15, 1959, Dean Ashton reported victory to President Wells, declaring that “all of the graduate divisions of the University except that of [HPER] have now agreed to a proposal for the integration of graduate work.”</p>

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<p>Photograph taken by Hayden S. Sims</p>

<p>A recommendation of how to reorganize graduate education under a single administration. The full proposal is available in the Indiana University Archives, C278, Box 1.</p>


<h4>50 Years of Graduate Studies</h4>

<p>The Graduate School celebrates its golden anniversary with a three-month long program including lectures, speakers, and exhibits. A week-long graduate exhibit in the men’s lounge of the Union was so popular, attracting over 800 people on its first night and 5,000 over the course of the week, that it was extended for an additional five days. The list of prominent speakers was headlined by then Yale University president A. Whitney Griswold.</p>

<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/44940744555/in/album-72157700285574512/”>

<p>Photograph taken by Hayden S. Sims</p>

<p>Lecture Schedule for the Graduate School Fiftieth Anniversary festivities; Indiana University Archives Reference Files, "Graduate School Fiftieth Anniversary (1954)."</p>


<h4>John W. Ashton</h4>

<p>Education:<br>Bates College (B.A. 1922) <br>University of Chicago (Ph.D. 1928) </p><p>Dean Ashton came to Indiana University in 1946 as professor of English and dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. He was a great supporter of interdisciplinary programs and emerging fields such as comparative literature, linguistics, Eastern European studies, Folklore, and Uralic and Altaic Studies. Dean Ashton played a pivotal role in the fight to coordinate all graduate work at IU in the 1950s. In 1980, the Graduate Residence Center was renamed the John W. Ashton Center.</p>

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<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0048967</p>


<h4>Kirkwood Hall</h4>

<p>In June 1960, President Wells announced to the Board of Trustees that the Graduate School had “moved from the dirty, cramped, and unattractive quarters in Lindley Hall to the spacious, well-lighted, and thoroughly pre-possessing suite of offices in Kirkwood Hall.” This move, fittingly, began a new decade of growth and change in the history of the Graduate School, as it evolved into the great home of research and education that it is today.</p>

<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/45806083802/in/dateposted-public/”>

<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives, P0025256</p>