<h2> Juliette Maxwell: the first director of the Department of Physical Training for Women at IU</h2>
<h3>1861-2018</h3>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27093074567/in/dateposted-public/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0027262</p>
<h3>September 9 1861</h3>
<h4>Juliette Maxwell is Born</h4>
<p>Juliette--born Martha Juliette Maxwell--was the youngest child of James D. Maxwell and Louisa J. Howe [12]. Her father was the President of the Board of Trustees for Indiana University from 1862-1865. His father--David H. Maxwell--was also the President of the Board from 1820-1837. Juliette's grandfather was known as "The Father of Indiana University" as he convinced the state government through lobbying to create the state seminary in Bloomington [13]. Maxwell Hall was named in honor of both of these men in 1894 [14].</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41428586744/in/dateposted-public/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0020117</p>
<h3>1883</h3>
<h4>Juliette Maxwell Graduates from Indiana University</h4>
<p>Maxwell was one of the few women to graduate from IU in 1883, and the only one with an A.B. in Physical Training [1]. This degree would have allowed her to become a certified teacher in physical education--including sports, stretching, and equipment procedures.</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40328899420/in/dateposted-public/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0020118</p>
<h3>May 1890</h3>
<h4>Graduates from Sargent's Normal school of Physical Training in Harvard [1]</h4>
<p>A prestigious school once connected to Harvard University, the program is now housed by the University of Massachusetts [2]. Here, Maxwell furthered her education.</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40362784185/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of Joseph P. Healey Library Archives of the University of Massachusetts Boston</p>
<h3>August 1890-1892</h3>
<h4>Coates College hires Maxwell as Physical Director</h4>
<p>Coates College was an all-female school in Terre Haute, Indiana. Though the school had little funding and only operated from 1885 to 1897, it was a progressive institute that offered education to women in a way that few other schools could at the time. Maxwell was hired as the only instructor of physical training at the school and was also the head of her department [1]. She left in 1892 after the death of the college's founder and main source of funding, Jane Coates. [3]</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27385312288/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of The Terre Haute Tribune - Vigo County Historical Museum</p>
<h3>1893</h3>
<h4>Maxwell hired on as an instructor in the Women's Gymnasium</h4>
<p>With strong roots already planted in the university and Bloomington, Juliette Maxwell returned to IU as a physical instructor for the department. She was one of the few instructors in the department at the time, as the program had only been created in 1890. [5]</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41415655004/in/dateposted-public/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0020564</p>
<h3>1896</h3>
<h4>Maxwell appointed as the Director of Physical Education for Women</h4>
<p>After Mrs. Harriet Saunderson (the first staff member of Physical Training for Women) left the department [6], Juliette Maxwell is promoted to the position of Director. She now has authority (with confirmation from the Board of Trustees) in who is hired in the department, how funds will be used, and what subjects will be taught. </p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27093074567/in/dateposted-public/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0073699</p>
<h3>1905</h3>
<h4>New Women's Gymnasium opens</h4>
<p>The gymnasium was constructed in what is now the Student Building in part with the guidance of Juliette Maxwell. She recommended to President William Lowe Bryan that a larger space for her students with nearby changing rooms and higher quality plumbing [7] was greatly needed. The previous two women's gymnasiums (in Wylie and Mitchell Halls) were cramped spaces which were shared with other departments and had few of the amenities that their male counterparts enjoyed.</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27385312568/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0023150 </p>
<h3>1913</h3>
<h4>Women's Athletic Association (WAA) begins </h4>
<p>The 1914 Arbutus--the first publication to note the WAA on campus--wrote that, "The purpose of the Women’s Athletic Association is to promote a greater interest in girls’ athletics. The association has proved to be both a popular and healthful organization. As a result of the numerals that are given for excellence in the various lines of athletics, many girls engage in hockey, swimming, basketball, and tennis, who in former years gave no thought to physical training." [8] Though it was an undergraduate-run organization, Maxwell helped the girls to gain funding from the Board of Trustees, as well as acted as their Treasurer.</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40362784465/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0025536 </p>
<h3>1916</h3>
<h4>New Women's Athletic Field Constructed </h4>
<p>The 1916 Arbutus notes that a "New athletic field for girls is to be established east of the campus. It will have a field house, and all of the necessary apparatus, and will give women’s athletics an added impetus toward even greater success. Miss Juliette Maxwell is Director of Physical Education for women. Much credit must be given her for the active, yet conservative policy that has led to the splendid development of girl’s athletics." [15] This field would have been primarily used for sports like field hockey, which was especially popular among women at the time.</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/26386855477/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0025684 </p>
<h3>1919</h3>
<h4>Dr. David Maxwell Medal created</h4>
<p>Juliette Maxwell and IU President William Lowe Bryan created an annual award named in honor of Dr. David Maxwell (Juliette's father). Towards the end of his life, Juliette Maxwell took a leave of absence from IU to care for her father and to attend his funeral. To honor his memory, she recommended to President Bryan that an award be created in his honor. Together they collaborated over the details. The award was to be presented at the end of each year to a senior in the Women's Athletic Association who had earned a sweater in the activity program and was also an exemplary representative of scholarly achievement, leadership, and high personal qualities. [9]</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27385312408/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0055055 </p>
<h3>June 6 1922</h3>
<h4>Maxwell becomes one of two women to be appointed professors at IU</h4>
<p>Juliette Maxwell and Lillian Gay Berry were both appointed with the title of 'professor' on the same day. Berry was a Latin teacher while Maxwell continued to teach young women physical training. [10]</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27385307998/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University, Arbutus 1902 Yearbook, Bloomington, IN </p>
<h3>September 27 1928</h3>
<h4>Maxwell retires </h4>
<p>On June 8, 1928 Maxwell sent her retirement request to the president of the Board of Trustees stating that she will retire on her 66th birthday. She argued that she "shall not be needed in the department next fall." Miss Nell Martindale is then appointed as the Director of the Department of Physical Education for Women. [11]</p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40362784325/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of Indiana University Archives Photograph Collections P0040672 </p>
<h3>August 30 1939</h3>
<h4>Juliette Maxwell Dies </h4>
<p>At the age of 77, Maxwell passes. Though she had no children of her own, her family's legacy was carried on by her nieces and nephews [16]. </p>
<img src=“https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/39451158320/in/album-72157689549705550/”>
<p>Courtesy of Rose Hill Cemetery in Bloomington, Indiana</p>
<h3>2018</h3>
<h4>Citations </h4>
<p>[1] "Faculty" Arbutus 1894 - [2] "Our History" Boston University College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College - [3] McCormick, Mike. "Coates College for Women" Terre Haute Tribune Star. 1998 - [4] "Faculty" Arbutus.1902 - [5] Hutchison, Isabelle. "History of Women’s Athletics (unpublished)". Indiana University, Bloomington.1995. - [6] Munro, Edna. "History of the Department of Physical Education for Women At Indiana University". Indiana University, Bloomington. 1971 - [7] Maxwell, Juliette. "Correspondence to the Board of Trustees of Indiana University". Indiana University Archives. 1902. - [8] "Women's Athletic Association" Arbutus. 1914 - [9] "James Maxwell Medal" Indiana University Bulletin. 1920 - [10] "Description of P0040672" Indiana University Archives Photography Collection. 1928. - [11] Maxwell, Juliette. "Correspondence to the President and the Board of Trustees of Indiana University". Indiana University Archives. 1928. - [12] "Dr James Darwin Maxwell Obituary." Republican Progress, 5 Oct. 1892. Newspaper Archives, Indiana University. - [13] "Description of P0021414" Indiana University Archives Photography Collection. 1850. - [14] "Description of P0020049" Indiana University Archives Photography Collection. 1910. - [15] "Athletics" Arbutus. 1916. - [16] "Juliette Maxwell Obituary" Evening World, 1 Sept. 1939. Monroe County Library. </p>