<h2>1636-2013</h2>

<h3>Major Milestones of Higher Education</h3>

<p>The law affects almost every aspect of the functioning of Indiana University and higher education in general. As a result, a comprehensive outline of the legal history of higher education is a useful tool. The timeline that follows illustrates major higher education legal milestones.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41910491421/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”IU Logo”>

<h3>1636</h3>

<h4>Harvard University Established</h4>

<p>The first university in the new world was established by a vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41910524651/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Harvard Logo”>

<h3>1819</h3>

<h4>Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodword</h4>

<p>This case settled the debate between public and private charters and allowed for there to be both public and private institutions of higher education.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41192983284/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodword”>

<h3>1862</h3>

<h4>The Morill-Land Grant Acts</h4>

<p>This act provided land for states to create colleges which focused on agricultural and mechanic arts. A large number of colleges were created due to this act including Purdue University, Michigan State University, and Virginia Tech.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/28040208228/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Land Grant Colleges”>

<h3>1863</h3>

<h4>False Claims Act</h4>

<p>This act provided a legal way to prevent fraud against the government (whistleblowers).</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27041435347/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”False Claims Act Photo”>

<h3>1890</h3>

<h4>Sherman Antitrust Act</h4>

<p>This act sought to keep competition competitive and prevent monopolies. It can apply to higher education institutions in order to keep them competitive, or keep them from forming trusts, in areas such as tuition cost and accreditation.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41916595472/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Sherman Antitrust Act”>

<h3>1944</h3>

<h4>Servicemen's Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill)</h4>

<p>The G.I. bill provided veterans funds to either return to college, attend college for the first time, or to participate in some type of training program which created a flood of new students after the war. It is estimated that approximately nine million veterans took advantage of this bill.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27041486707/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”GI Bill Signing”>

<h3>1944</h3>

<h4>National Scientific Foundation Act</h4>

<p>This legislation created the National Science Foundation. The NSF provides a large amount of funds for science and research in higher education institutions.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40103275390/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”National Science Foundation”>

<h>1951</h>
<h4> National Collegiate Athletic Association</h4>
Although the organization was created in 1906, the NCAA established permanent headquarters in 1951. The NCAA has been continually organizing collegiate athletics since its inception.
<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41193127774/in/dateposted-public/”alt=NCAA logo”>

<h3>1954</h3>

<h4>Brown v. Board of Education</h4>

<p>The Supreme Court upholds that "separate is not equal." This landmark legislation paved the way for the desegregation of schools at all levels.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011236855/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Brown v. Board of Education”>

<h3>1957-1967</h3>

<h4>Sweezey v. New Hampshire (1957) and Keyishian v. Board of Regents of University of New York (1967)</h4>

<p>Two landmark court cases that defined academic freedom for higher education.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41910713461/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Academic Freedom”>

<h3>1958</h3>

<h4>National Defense Education Act</h4>

<p>In response to the Soviet launch of the Sputnik satellite Congress passed this act. It provided national funding for scientific research and education in an attempt to catch up to the Soviets in the space race.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/42082817722/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”newletter heading that reads Russians Lead Race to Launch Earth Satellite”>

<h3>1961</h3>

<h4>Dixon v. Alabama</h4>

<p>This legislation provided due process for students in higher education. It also brought an end to "in loco parentis" which is the term used to describe when colleges took on the role and responsibilities of being a parent of its students in the eyes of the law.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41910751521/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Dixon v. Alabama”>

<h3>1963</h3>

<h4>Equal Pay Act</h4>

<p>This act prohibits wage based discrimination based on the sex of an employee.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011295805/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Equal Pay Act”>

<h3>1963</h3>

<h4>Higher Education Facilities Act</h4>

<p>This act helped increase and improve the physical aspect of colleges.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011316885/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Higher Education Facilities Act”>

<h3>1964</h3>

<h4>Civil Rights Act</h4>

<p>This landmark legislation prohibits discrimination based on race, color, and national origin.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011332805/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Civil Rights Act Signing”>

<h3>1965</h3>

<h4>Higher Education Act</h4>

<p>This act increased federal funding to higher education. Specifically, it increased the financial assistance available for students.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011344835/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Higher Education Act Signing”>

<h3>1966</h3>

<h4>Animal Welfare Act</h4>

<p>This act regulates the treatment of animals in research.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/28040450968/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Animal Welfare Act”>

<h3>1967</h3>

<h4>Age Discrimination in Employment Act</h4>

<p>This legislation prohibits employment discrimination based on age.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011368125/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Age Discrimination in Employment Act”>

<h3>1967</h3>

<h4>Freedom of Information Act</h4>

<p>This bill laid out a process for individuals to request access to university information records.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41867566952/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Freedom of Information Act”>

<h3>1968</h3>

<h4>Powe v. Miles</h4>

<p>This law established that colleges can have both public and private sections.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/28040500898/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Powe v. Miles”>

<h3>1969</h3>

<h4>Tinker v. Des Moines Community School Districts</h4>

<p>This act protected student’s first amendment rights in public institutions and especially focused on a student’s right to freedom of speech and that they had a legal ability to protest.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41193321634/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Academic Freedom”>

<h3>1970</h3>

<h4>Occupational Safety and Health Act</h4>

<p>This act was designed to keep places free from health hazards. It also required colleges to have written emergency action plans visible in the workplace.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40150463080/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Occupational Safety and Health Act”>

<h3>1972</h3>

<h4>Perry v. Sindermann</h4>

<p>This act established that the removal of tenured faculty member requires a cause and due process in order for it to be legitimate.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011471165/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Perry v. Sindermann”>

<h3>1972</h3>

<h4>Education Amendments</h4>

<p>Title IX, of the Education Amendments, states that there cannot be discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives federal funding. Among other things this important legislation has improved equality in collegiate sports.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41867669442/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Education Amendments”>

<h3>1972</h3>

<h4>Zumbrun v. University of Southern California</h4>

<p>This law established that the relationship between the university and student is contractual.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/28040583978/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Zumbrun v. University of Southern California”>

<h3>1974</h3>

<h4>The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)</h4>

<p>This act ensures that student educational records are kept private. It still governs the privacy of student educational records today.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27088482367/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)”>

<h3>1976</h3>

<h4>Resource Conservation and Recovery Act</h4>

<p>This legislation established regulations on the disposal of both solid and hazardous waste..</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/28040595168/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Resource Conservation and Recovery Act”>

<h3>1976</h3>

<h4>The Copyright Act</h4>

<p>This act designated the rights of copyright holders. It is still the main piece of legislation on copyright law today.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011547915/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”The Copyright Act”>

<h3>1978</h3>

<h4>Regents of the University of California v. Bakke</h4>

<p>This case upheld affirmative action. Affirmative action says that race can be a factor in the college admissions process.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40103730430/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Regents of the University of California v. Bakke”>

<h3>1979</h3>

<h4>National Labor Relations Board v. Yeshiva University</h4>

<p>This ruling decided that full time professors did not have collective bargaining rights because they had "managerial" discretion when it came to academics.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40103750070/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”National Labor Relations Board v. Yeshiva University”>

<h3>1979</h3>

<h4>Bradshaw v. Rawlings</h4>

<p>This act is about student safety and university liability and states that universities do not have a legal duty when it comes to protecting its students from any harm.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27041960287/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Bradshaw v. Rawlings University Liability”>

<h3>1979</h3>

<h4>Department of Education</h4>

<p>The Department of Education was established. This department manages governmental assistance to educational institutions and monitors educational institutions in the United States.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41867774712/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Department of Education”>

<h3>1980</h3>

<h4>Bayh-Dole Act</h4>

<p>This act enumerated intellectual property rights for university research. It allowed for intellectual property rights for research conducted using federal funding.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41867789262/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Bayh-Dole Act”>

<h3>1983</h3>

<h4>U.S. News & World Report</h4>

<p>This publication issued its first rankings of higher education institutions. Today these rankings are important for colleges themselves and the students who attend them.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41867805452/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”U.S. News & World Report”>

<h3>1983</h3>

<h4>Plano v. Fountain Gate Ministries</h4>

<p>This case dealt with the question, what is a college?</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41911136091/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Plano v. Fountain Gate Ministries, What is a College?”>

<h3>1983</h3>

<h4>Mullens v. Pine Manor College</h4>

<p>Colleges must adhere to safety practices like landlords.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41911150531/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Mullens v. Pine Manor College, Safety Practices”>

<h3>1984</h3>

<h4>Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act</h4>

<p>This act increased funding for vocational and technical education in higher education.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27042079437/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act”>

<h3>1986</h3>

<h4>Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act</h4>

<p>This act was intended to support emergency response preparedness in the United States.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41193586034/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act”>

<h3>1990</h3>

<h4>The Clery Act</h4>

<p>This act required that colleges receiving federal funding must provide crime statistics and security related information. It is named in honor of Jeanne Clery, a student at Leigh University who was assaulted and murdered in her dorm room in 1986.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011756165/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”The Clery Act”>

<h3>1990</h3>

<h4>The Americans with Disabilities Act</h4>

<p>This act prohibits organizations from discriminating against someone because of a disability.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/28040790478/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”The Americans with Disabilities Act”>

<h3>1991</h3>

<h4>Furek v. the University of Delaware</h4>

<p>This act discusses the relationship between higher education and misfeasance negligence. It decided that colleges could be held liable for not doing enough to protect students (misfeasance negligence).</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41911246101/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Furek v. the University of Delaware”>

<h3>1994</h3>

<h4>School to Work Opportunities Act</h4>

<p>This legislation restructured higher education to include more work-based learning into student academics. The focus was to make sure students had the skills necessary to get a job after graduation.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40103980120/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”School to Work Opportunities Act”>

<h3>1994</h3>

<h4>Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act</h4>

<p>This act stated that higher education institutions must provide gender equity reports for athletics.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/27042271217/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act”>

<h3>1996</h3>

<h4>Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act</h4>

<p>This act laid out healthcare guidelines and requirements in general. Higher education institutions are required to follow them.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011836005/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act”>

<h3>2000</h3>

<h4>Prairie View University A&M University of Texas v. Mitchell</h4>

<p>This case decided that institutions of higher education can use sovereign immunity as a defense against lawsuits. Sovereign immunity is a legal doctrine that puts forth the idea that a state cannot commit a legal wrong in the eyes of the law.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/28040867388/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Prairie View University A&M University of Texas v. Mitchell”>

<h3>2000</h3>

<h4>Goldbarth v. Kansas State Board of Regents</h4>

<p>This case interpreted Section 1983 and determined state administrators can get "qualified immunity" against lawsuits. Administrators in public institutions of higher education are granted this "qualified immunity".</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40104078870/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Goldbarth v. Kansas State Board of Regents, ‘qualified immunity’”>

<h3>2002</h3>

<h4>Sarbanes-Oxley Act</h4>

<p>This act set requirements for accounting in public entities. Higher education institutions are subject to these requirements</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41911331201/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Sarbanes-Oxley Act”>

<h3>2004</h3>

<h4>Cooperative Research and Technology Enhancement Act</h4>

<p>This act amended patent law to promote research.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40104118650/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Cooperative Research and Technology Enhancement Act”>

<h3>2005</h3>

<h4>Joseph v. Board of Regents of University of Wisconsin System</h4>

<p>This case decided, through an interpretation of the 11th amendment, that public higher education institutions are considered "arms of the state." As a result, public higher education institutions are guaranteed certain protections against lawsuits. The purpose of this act was to make sure students had the skills necessary to get a job after graduation.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41193874034/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Joseph v. Board of Regents of University of Wisconsin System, 11th Amendment, ‘arms of the state’”>

<h3>2006</h3>

<h4>Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act</h4>

<p>This act discussed student codes and preventive measures for student safety.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41011955935/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act”>

<h3>2007</h3>

<h4>Virginia Tech Shooting</h4>

<p>The Virginia Tech shooting caused a reevaluation of safety on college campuses.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41868138912/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Virginia Tech Shooting”>

<h3>2010</h3>

<h4>Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act</h4>

<p>This act increased federal funding for student financial aid.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41911419431/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act”>

<h3>2010</h3>

<h4>Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act</h4>

<p> The creation of this act made major healthcare changes.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/40104219300/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Signing”>

<h3>2013</h3>

<h4>Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act</h4>

<p>The Campus Sexual Violence Act provision, found within this act, includes additional crime categories. The act as a whole was an attempt to address violence against women on college campuses.</p>

<img src=”https://www.flickr.com/photos/145186649@N02/41868179732/in/dateposted-public/”alt=”Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act”>